=== tritium_ is now known as tritium
=== Mamarok_ is now known as Mamarok
easwar30 minutes!17:31
MichaelGodawskijust a quick question: who is here for the course??17:37
* coolbhavi lifts his both hands up!17:37
MichaelGodawski...perhaps it is a bit too early to ask :)17:38
* LeAstrale is unfortunately not here, But has turned on his logging device17:39
linkmaster03i'm interested in seeing how this "irc class" goes17:40
linkmaster03even though i already know about root it should be fun17:40
MichaelGodawskilinkmaster03, good to hear17:45
easwarMichaelGodawski, ask again17:45
easwar15 minutes to go17:45
MichaelGodawskibecause easwar is pushing me I will ask again: Who is here for the class ? :=)17:46
LeAstrale my client is17:46
mdmyes, I cam along to see what it was about.17:47
MichaelGodawskihi mdm good to have you here, would be nice if you could give us some feedback after the class to improve the future classes we organize17:48
BodsdaI'm here -- but im gonna go top up the nicotine and caffeine deposits now, il be back in 1017:48
Bodsdawhat is the class about?17:49
MichaelGodawskiIntroduction to Root and Sudo17:49
MichaelGodawskiVery basic stuff :)17:49
MichaelGodawskiA Warm - Up for the classed to come17:49
mdmsure, no problem.17:49
BodsdaMichaelGodawski, cool, is it gonna go into how to use root account or how to run admin apps without using sudo?17:50
MichaelGodawskinot this one :) this something for a Root and Sudo II class :=)17:50
Bodsdaok, no worries, im sure it will still be educational -- theres always extra bits about basic stuff that i never knew :)17:51
mdmneed to re-start but will be back before 6.17:52
MichaelGodawskitrue Bodsda and again it is rather an introduction for beginners :) but experienced user can use the knowledge gained here and use it on the forums.... having knowledge is not the same as giving it away17:52
BodsdaMichaelGodawski, il be back in 5, but have you considered logging these classrooms and (with permission from lecturer) use them for ubuntu resources?17:53
linkmaster03MichaelGodawski: i will definitely give you feedback :) the class is starting in about 2 hours, correct?17:54
MichaelGodawskiBodsda, I am the lecturer :)17:54
MichaelGodawskilinkmaster03, actually it starts in 6 min if I am correct17:54
forestpixieno 1800UTC linkmaster0317:55
linkmaster03i thought UTC = GMT?17:55
linkmaster03yeah, i just suck at counting17:55
forestpixieit is and it's 17:55 :)17:55
forestpixielinkmaster03: date -u in terminal :)17:55
BodsdaMichaelGodawski, oh, lol :)17:56
MichaelGodawskishall we start?18:00
MichaelGodawskiwell then here we go:18:00
MichaelGodawskiEducation Focus Group:18:00
MichaelGodawskiIntroduction to Root and Sudo18:00
MichaelGodawskiby Michael.Godawski and forestpixie18:01
MichaelGodawskiShort Introduction18:01
MichaelGodawskiWelcome to the first course prepared by the Education Focus Group; a group from the Beginners Team on the Ubuntuforums.org. As mentioned this is our first course so we are glad to hear your feedback afterwards.18:01
MichaelGodawskiFirst I wanted to ask how many of your are here for the course18:01
* linkmaster03 claps18:02
MichaelGodawskigood not much but better then none :)18:02
MichaelGodawskiLet's go quickly over the formalities:18:03
MichaelGodawskihere is our site: https://wiki.ubuntu.com/BeginnersTeam/FocusGroups/Education18:03
MichaelGodawskinew courses, articles, and resources will be published here.18:03
MichaelGodawskiWe are going to work with the terminal a bit so open it ( Applications > Accessories > Terminal )and also open a web-browser.18:03
MichaelGodawskiRoot and Sudo18:03
MichaelGodawskiThis course is aimed at the very beginners of Ubuntu/Linux; during the course we will cover some very basic terminal commands. So for some of you it might be boring, but for some still new and exciting18:03
MichaelGodawskiPlease bear in mind, we have to cover as much as possible and as easy as possible.18:03
MichaelGodawskiLet's start.18:03
MichaelGodawskiThe root is the administrator of the system. He can change, edit, delete everything. He/she has absolute power over the system.18:04
MichaelGodawskiBut doing basic stuff like browsing the Internet, using applications etc. does not require the root access, it can be even harmful. The argument which often comes up, is that Ubuntu is restricting the user.18:04
MichaelGodawskiThe root account password is indeed locked as default in Ubuntu. This means you cannot login as root directly. Sometimes however you need root privileges for instance to install a piece of software or do some administrative tasks.18:04
MichaelGodawskiHere is the grand entrance of sudo; "since the root account physically exists it is still possible to run programs with root-level privileges."18:04
MichaelGodawskiSo you can just add sudo in front of a command, type in your user password, and execute it as root.18:04
MichaelGodawskiSudo gives you root privileges temporally.18:04
MichaelGodawskiSudo can be split into: You do the command as super-user, as root.18:05
MichaelGodawskiLet's do some basic terminal tasks now. We will create a new directory in your /home folder first. Sounds easy? It is.18:05
MichaelGodawskicommand:     mkdir ~/test18:05
MichaelGodawskiThe ~ is a symbol for /home/user-name. Open your home folder with Nautilus. And check if the test folder is there.18:05
MichaelGodawskiis it?18:06
linkmaster03yes :D18:06
MichaelGodawskiTo delete it we can use the rm command. On the forums there are many users who cannot operate with this command properly and they delete their whole system because they execute it with sudo and with a wrong syntax.18:06
MichaelGodawskiThe syntax is as follows:18:06
MichaelGodawskirm [OPTION]... FILE...18:06
MichaelGodawskiAlways specify a path to directory or folder after the rm command,18:06
MichaelGodawskicommand:    rm ~/test18:07
MichaelGodawskiWhat happens? You get an error:18:07
MichaelGodawskirm: cannot remove `/home/michael/test': Is a directory18:07
MichaelGodawskirm is for removing files. We will use rm -r to delete recursively.  rm -r removes directories and their contents recursively so be careful with it.18:07
MichaelGodawskicommand:    rm -r ~/test18:08
MichaelGodawskiEverything is fine? Than we proceed.18:08
MichaelGodawskiSo for instance you want to create a directory in /usr.18:08
MichaelGodawskiLet us check if there is no folder called test in /usr18:08
MichaelGodawskicommand:    ls /usr/18:08
MichaelGodawskicommand:     sudo mkdir /usr/test18:09
MichaelGodawskiNavigate into the /usr directory with18:09
MichaelGodawskicommand:     cd /usr18:09
MichaelGodawskiUse the command ls to list the directories located there. The test directory should be visible.18:09
MichaelGodawskiNow we want to remove the test directory. Using the rm command via the terminal and especially with root privileges is very dangerous and must be executed with alertness and a cautious mind.18:09
MichaelGodawskiThe correct command to remove the test directory we have just created is:18:10
MichaelGodawskicommand:     sudo rm -r /usr/test18:10
MichaelGodawskiAlways remember to specify a path to the directory or file after the rm command or you are in big trouble.18:10
MichaelGodawskiQuestions so far? I hope your system is still there :)18:10
linkmaster03a ton of text is scrolling by and it is removing /boot18:11
linkmaster03is that good?18:11
MichaelGodawskinot good18:11
linkmaster03just kidding lol18:11
MichaelGodawskii was dying18:11
MichaelGodawskinext point then ::))))) no jokes :)18:11
coolbhaviMichaelGodawski, I have a doubt18:11
mdmsorry i had connection problems, but am following18:12
MichaelGodawskino problem mdm18:12
MichaelGodawskinext point then:18:12
MichaelGodawskiAdvantages/Disadvantages of Sudo18:12
MichaelGodawskiYou have only one password. This is a good thing when you are a forgetful person.18:12
MichaelGodawskiYour actions are somewhat supervised by the precondition to enter your sudo/root password.18:12
MichaelGodawskiBrute-force attacks on the root-account become meaningless because there is no root-account.18:12
MichaelGodawskiThe transfer of rights is very flexible and highly customizable. (via sudoers file)18:12
MichaelGodawskiThe default authentication is limited to a specific amount of time - 15 min (can be changed). So if you leave the machine, you do not leave an open root-terminal forever.18:13
MichaelGodawskiBasically you can say using sudo is safer than a root account by default. The "restriction" to type in the password each time after sudo gives you a break to really think about the consequences of your next actions. Sudo can save you from your own genius.18:13
coolbhaviMichaelGodawski, for removing/ making files of the user you dont need sudo in general right?18:13
Bodsdacoolbhavi, you can remove and make files/folders in your /home dir because you own it18:13
MichaelGodawskieverything what happen in your /home folder is done without sudo18:14
MichaelGodawskiyes Bodsda thx :)18:14
linkmaster03we have two MichaelGodawski's cool18:14
MichaelGodawskifeel free to jump in and help me out if you know better :)18:14
Bodsdaif you did chown -R <username> /    then you would a) bugger everything up, and b) be able to create files folders anywhere without sudo -- i think :)18:14
coolbhaviMichaelGodawski, yup that was what I was trying to tell :) Thanks18:14
MichaelGodawskiOk now the cons:18:15
MichaelGodawskiA real life example:18:15
MichaelGodawskiBasically it can be summarized with: "Redirecting the output of commands run with sudo requires a different approach. For instance consider sudo ls > /root/somefile will not work since it is the shell that tries to write to that file. You can use ls | sudo tee -a /root/somefile to append, or ls | sudo tee /root/somefile to overwrite contents. You could also pass the whole command to a shell process run under sudo to have18:15
MichaelGodawski the file written to with root permissions, such as sudo sh -c ls > /root/somefile.18:15
MichaelGodawskiThis is just an info to be complete; you have not to understand the syntax of these commands now. Perhaps it is a topic for another course. For now it is sufficient to say that sudo needs a specifiic syntax when more than one command is executed at once.18:15
easwaror when you are redirecting,as in this case18:16
MichaelGodawskiLet's proceed we have some more topics ..... true easwar18:16
MichaelGodawskinext point then:18:17
MichaelGodawskiauth.log and .bash_history18:17
MichaelGodawskiAll your commmands started with sudo, executed with root privileges are stored in this log:18:17
MichaelGodawskiYou can either access it by System - Administration - System Log - auth.log, or by typing into the terminal18:17
MichaelGodawskinano /var/log/auth.log18:17
MichaelGodawskiThis log is very useful if you messed something up, and want to look up the commands executed with sudo.18:17
easwarMichaelGodawski, wouldn't be easier with cat /var/log/auth.log18:17
Bodsdaor nano can be replaced by any editor18:17
MichaelGodawskiyes cat / less what you want :)18:18
linkmaster03ooh i didn't know that one18:18
easwarneither I18:18
MichaelGodawskiwanted just to introduce one cli editor at this point18:18
coolbhavior more also some times I think :)18:18
linkmaster03so will that log contain all commands execute as sudo?18:18
MichaelGodawskiwe all should no gedit and vim is complex18:18
Bodsdacoolbhavi, more is primitive less18:18
MichaelGodawskilinkmaster03, The usual entry login and usage of a sudo command looks as follows:18:18
easwaremacs!I don't know anything about it though,I prefer vim18:19
MichaelGodawskiDec 4 10:35:37 michael-laptop sudo: michael : TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/home/michael ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/usr/bin/apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras18:19
forestpixiecan we cut the chat please18:19
MichaelGodawskithx forestpixie18:19
linkmaster03ah yes i see it thank you MichaelGodawski18:19
MichaelGodawskiyou see the command executed and the user in this example the root18:19
MichaelGodawskiThere is also a log which stores every command you type into the terminal. It is located here:18:19
BodsdaMichaelGodawski, may i ask a question?18:19
easwarlinkmaster03, that file contains all the commands *you* executed as sudo18:20
MichaelGodawskican we wait till the end of this section with questions and remarks?18:20
Bodsdasure, sorry18:20
MichaelGodawskiThere is also a log which stores every command you type into the terminal. It is located here:18:20
MichaelGodawskiSo open it with nano ~/.bash_history and have a look at all your commands used so far. Notice that you do not need the sudo in front of the nano command, because the .bash-history is located in your home directory. In this directory the user has read, write and execute permissions.18:20
MichaelGodawskiOther possibilities to open the log are:18:21
MichaelGodawskicat .bash_history |grep sudo18:21
MichaelGodawskiIf it was recent use tail as well18:21
MichaelGodawskicat .bash_history |grep sudo |tail18:21
MichaelGodawskiQuestions so far?18:21
BodsdaMichaelGodawski, does auth.log store unsuccessful sudo attempts?18:22
MichaelGodawskigood question let's try it out :) what do you mean by unsuccessful?18:22
MichaelGodawskiwrong password?18:22
MichaelGodawskicommand not found?18:22
Bodsdawrong password > 3 times -- or wrong password once18:22
forestpixieI will try and report back18:23
MichaelGodawskiwe can solve this here I guess... just try it out everybody18:23
Bodsdaiirc sudo will re-prompt three times, if still unsuccessful it just doesnt run the command18:23
MichaelGodawskirun this command: sudo apt-get installl foo18:23
MichaelGodawskidoes it occur in the log?18:23
forestpixie 1 incorrect password attempt18:24
forestpixieso yes it does Bodsda :)18:24
MichaelGodawskiJan 17 19:24:14 michael-laptop sudo:  michael : TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/home/michael ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/usr/bin/apt-get installl f18:24
BodsdaJan 17 18:24:03 bod sudo:      bod : 3 incorrect password attempts ; TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/home/bod ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/usr/bin/apt-get install foo18:24
linkmaster03yup it does18:24
Bodsdayep :)18:24
MichaelGodawskinice question empirically solved18:24
Bodsdaso if you wanted to see if anyone had tried to use your computer while you were away18:25
Bodsdayou could18:25
easwarI didn't enter anything as password,and it just reported an authentication failure18:25
easwarnot an "incorrect password attempt"18:25
Bodsdacat /var/log/auth.log | grep incorrect18:25
Bodsdaor tail it first for recent incorrect attempts18:25
easwarzilch results18:25
easwarof course,I was only running sudo apt-get update18:26
Bodsdaeaswar, it doesnt matter about the command18:26
linkmaster03can we let the course go on :P18:26
Bodsdaeaswar, the authentication error was still logged, but not as an incorrect attempt because you didnt attempt anything18:26
MichaelGodawskiJan 17 19:26:20 michael-laptop sudo: pam_unix(sudo:auth): authentication failure; logname=michael uid=0 euid=0 tty=/dev/pts/1 ruser= rhost=  user=michael18:26
easwarBodsda, hmm18:27
easwarMichaelGodawski, exactly18:27
MichaelGodawskiso you see everything is somehow logged. Especially useful while helping new users on the forums18:27
MichaelGodawskiwho have executed commands, and cannot remember how they nuked their system :)18:28
MichaelGodawskiLet's come back to the theory. When you are asking yourself "what does this and that command actually do" run man commandname in the terminal for details.18:28
MichaelGodawskiSo for instance :18:28
MichaelGodawskiman sudo18:28
MichaelGodawskiThere we read:18:28
MichaelGodawskisudo allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified in the sudoers file.18:29
MichaelGodawskiNext question: what is the sudoers file?18:29
MichaelGodawski"The sudoers file controls who can run what commands as what users on what machines and can also control special things such as whether you need a password for particular commands. The file is composed of aliases (basically variables) and user specifications (which control who can run what)."18:29
MichaelGodawskiHere is an example of a sudoers file:18:29
easwarMichaelGodawski, one point I would like to make(later if you say so)18:29
MichaelGodawskisure at the end of every sections is time to aks and speak18:30
MichaelGodawskiAnd this is our default Ubuntu sudoers file:18:30
Bodsdajust a quick fyi, the sudoers file is located here: /etc/sudoers18:30
MichaelGodawskihttps://help.ubuntu.com/community/Sudoers#The Default Ubuntu Sudoers File18:30
MichaelGodawskigood Bodsda18:31
MichaelGodawskiEditing the sudoers file should be only done when you know what you are doing. A usual user, who just wants to work with the system, will never have to open this file if he/she does not want to.18:31
MichaelGodawskiIf you want more info on how to change the sudoers file ( but it is a rather rare task to do and some changes like removing the prompt for the sudo password are not supported by Canonical) have a look at:18:31
MichaelGodawskiok questions and remarks18:32
easwar[23:57]<MichaelGodawski> so you see everything is somehow logged. Especially useful while helping new users on the forums[23:58]<MichaelGodawski> who have executed commands, and cannot remember how they nuked their system :)<--If they have run sudo rm -rf /,even /var/log/auth.log won't be able to tell you what they've done18:32
Bodsdalol, correct18:32
MichaelGodawskiworst case scenario18:32
linkmaster03/var is one of the last directories to be removed though18:32
forestpixiebut I assume that they will be able to remeber that one :)18:32
MichaelGodawskiquestions to the audience from me if you run the sudo rm -rf command is there anything you can do to stop it??18:33
easwarforestpixie, not,if they've run one of those "hex code gibberish" ways18:33
MichaelGodawskianybody tried this out ?  joke please do not try to replicate this :)18:34
easwarlinkmaster03, I don't know that,but why would /var be one of the last directories to be removed?18:34
Bodsdaeaswar, those should never be run untill you can personally read all of the code (usually)18:34
linkmaster03easwar: because it is alphabetically after most other directories in /18:34
* Bodsda sets up VM to disobey orders :)18:34
forestpixieyes on a vm MichaelGodawski18:34
forestpixieit works ;)18:34
linkmaster03easwar: so /boot, /bin, /etc, /home and stuff would be removed before it even got to /var18:34
easwarBodsda, I know,but those things were (unfortunately) disguised as gelp18:34
MichaelGodawskivirtualization heaven :)18:34
easwarlinkmaster03, citation needed18:35
forestpixiethere are I believe some safeguards in jaunty18:35
Bodsdaeaswar, yes, the forums will catch them pretty quick now, and kmandla has posted a harmful commands sticky thread explaining some of them18:35
linkmaster03eh google it18:35
easwarBodsda, I know that,that's where I found out18:35
MichaelGodawskiok next point then: :)18:36
easwarand I wrote a thread too,asking exactly how they were disguised18:36
MichaelGodawskiThe Standards18:36
MichaelGodawskish sh sh18:36
MichaelGodawskiTo enhance the security of Linux-Systems administrative tasks can only be executed with super-user (Administrator) privileges.18:36
MichaelGodawskiWith the prefix sudo the user can run a command with these privileges and change the system freely and without restrictions.18:36
MichaelGodawskiRoot is the Super-user in Linux. The Root can be compared to the Administrator in Windows. The root may do everything. The root may nuke his system, Linux/Ubuntu will kindly ask if the user really wants this to happen, and then it will explode.18:36
MichaelGodawskiThe Root can edit every single file on the system. Therefore it is rather dangerous to act as root the whole time.18:36
MichaelGodawskiRoot privileges are bound to time. So if the task at hand is accomplished, the super-user becomes a "normal" user again. This is reasonable, because every attacker which might somehow gain control over the system gains also the normal user rights, and not the root privileges.18:36
MichaelGodawskiThe Linux Standard18:37
MichaelGodawskiDuring the installation a root account with a corresponding root password was created. Additional users with restricted rights were also set up. To do administrative tasks the user had use the Terminal: he/she had to switch with su (substitute user identity) and the root password into the role of the root. With exit the root became a normal user again.18:37
MichaelGodawskiFor a long period of time this was the usual procedure - but this method has some disadvantages:18:37
MichaelGodawskiWhen you forget to exit the root mode, the system becomes vulnerable.18:37
MichaelGodawskiYou have to remember two different passwords: the root and the user password.18:37
MichaelGodawskiThe root account can be very seducing and can entice to do real damage18:38
MichaelGodawskiThe Ubuntu Standard18:38
MichaelGodawskiof that the first user is able to activate root rights temporally.18:38
MichaelGodawskiThe Ubuntu developers followed a different path. A root account does exist, but it is disabled by default. Instead of that the first user is able to activate root rights temporally.18:38
MichaelGodawskiThis happens with the help of the terminal: sudo (super-user, do) in front of a command executes it with root right. Graphical applications are launched with gksudo or kdesudo respectively.18:38
MichaelGodawskiSo when Ubuntu asks you for a password, it is always the user (login) password. You won't see the password when you type it in into the Terminal; you have to type blindly, so to speak.18:38
MichaelGodawskiOnly users which belong to the admin group can gain root privileges. More precisely "for sudo, you do not need to be in the admin group; you only need access in the sudoers file, or in a group specified in the sudoers file; for su, you need to be in the admin group."18:39
MichaelGodawskiMore info on this topic can be found here:18:39
MichaelGodawskiOne disadvantage of this method might be the time-limited effect of the sudo command. You can extend the period however:18:39
MichaelGodawskiBut it definitely has its advantages:18:39
MichaelGodawskiMore than once super-user can exist; they can have different rights.18:40
MichaelGodawskiTime-limitations is set to 15 minutes, after this period of time the password must the re-entered.18:40
MichaelGodawskiYou have to remember only one password.18:40
MichaelGodawskiThe educational effect is bigger, because every time you do an important administrative task, the sudo password reminds you of it.18:40
MichaelGodawskiAnother advantage of sudo, it allows a graded access to root. The commands su (root environment) is all or none; but you can configure sudo such that a user may run some commands , but not others.18:40
MichaelGodawskiTo increase the time in which one have root privileges, for instance to run several commands, you can enter a pseudo-root-shell:18:40
MichaelGodawskicommand :     sudo -i18:40
MichaelGodawskiand you can exit the root environment with the command :     exit18:41
MichaelGodawskithx for being here :)18:41
linkmaster03why would it be better to run a GUI program as root with gksudo than just sudo if i was running it from terminal?18:41
MichaelGodawskiquestions and remarks now18:41
mdmthanks for taking the time MichaelGodawski18:42
* forestpixie thanks MichaelGodawski 18:42
linkmaster03yeah thanks MichaelGodawski i learned some things18:42
* MichaelGodawski bows18:42
forestpixielinkmaster03: you mean like gksu nautilus instead of sudo nautilus18:42
* easwar claps18:42
linkmaster03forestpixie: yeah, why is gksu recommended even if I am starting nautilus from terminal?18:43
LeAstraleAre you all done in here?18:43
Bodsdathere is a good explanation here -- http://www.psychocats.net/ubuntu/graphicalsudo18:43
MichaelGodawskiBodsda you can read my mind :)18:44
linkmaster03thanks Bodsda i actually just found that :P18:44
forestpixieit can cause unintended side effects - when I first started using ubuntu I did it the other way and got .ice authority problems18:44
MichaelGodawskiLeAstrale, official part is over18:44
forestpixieso I've not done it since - even if I caused it a different way :)18:44
LeAstraleMichaelGodawski: Okay then :)18:44
linkmaster03i remember i once ran firefox as sudo and all my permissions got changed so i had to fix everything to get my bookmarks and extensions and tabs back :P18:44
Bodsdaif a graphical program creates a file, and you have run it as the root account, the user would not have write or execute permissions on the file making things tricky18:44
mdmneed to make myself more familiar with the basic commands18:46
easwarok,0016 here,gotta go18:46
Bodsdacya easwar18:46
linkmaster03MichaelGodawski: i suggest maybe some more advertising next time. The only reason I knew about this was because I just happened to catch you saying there was a class here 30 minutes before it started18:46
forestpixienight easwar18:46
MichaelGodawskibye easwar thx for being here18:46
easwarThanks MichaelGodawski ,I learnt about /var/log/auth.log18:46
Bodsdamdm, what 'basic' commands?18:46
easwarGoodnight all18:46
forestpixieyes - we discussed that earlier linkmaster03 somewhere else :)18:46
linkmaster03and maybe clarifying when to ask questions before you start the lesson18:46
Bodsda+1 linkmaster0318:46
linkmaster03but other than that I liked it :)18:46
MichaelGodawskilinkmaster03, sure thats a good point18:46
BodsdaMichaelGodawski, nice lesson, cheers -- i learned a few things about logs i had no idea about18:47
forestpixielessons need to be moderated linkmaster0318:47
MichaelGodawskithx linkmaster03 Bodsda18:47
linkmaster03that would be cool18:47
linkmaster03maybe a +m when he's talking and -m for questions18:47
mdmonly been linux / ubuntu for a couple of months. and ok with mkdir etc but struggled later on.18:47
linkmaster03but you all havae probably figured it out already18:47
Bodsdathats what i was thinking18:47
linkmaster03hope to remember to come back here on Feb 118:48
linkmaster03good job again forestpixie and MichaelGodawski18:48
Bodsdamdm, do you mean with the 'cat' 'less' 'tail' 'more' etc?18:48
MichaelGodawskithx again18:48
Bodsdawell done MichaelGodawski18:48
Bodsda+ forestpixie18:48
mdmBodsda: yes that sort of thing18:49
Bodsdamdm, would you like me to go over it now?18:49
mdmBodsda: thanks for the offer, I have to go now though. Will do some reading.18:50
Bodsdamdm, ok, have fun :) man cat, man tail, man more, man less    are all worth a quick scan read18:50
mdmBodsda: thanks, will hopefully be back the second lesson in Feb.18:52
Bodsdacool :)18:52
forestpixiethanks for being here Bodsda :)18:55
Bodsdano probs forestpixie -- thanks for the lesson18:55
forestpixiewell I just provided tea and cakes :)18:56
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